Open Education, OpenAccess

Open Access Beyond #OAWeek: Reading Round-Up

Last week (October 19-25, 2015) was International Open Access Week (#OAweek) with the overarching goal for accessible scholarship, research, and educational content.

oalogo

Did you know about #OAweek? How did you mark or celebrate being open? In my efforts to play catch up and support open access, open educational resources (OER), open data, and openness for collaboration, here’s a rundown post about the latest happenings around OPENnness.

The Welcome Trust celebrated 10 years of Open Access and to mark #OAweek the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), marked the week of open access by highlighting Collaboration in the Open:

“Open access is the practice of making research available online, for free, ideally under licenses that permit widespread dissemination. This year’s theme for Open Access Week is ‘open for collaboration’ …both in academia and beyond—enables a kind of collaboration that can scale very quickly.

When research is closed, no one can access it unless they (or, more often, the institutions where they work or study) can afford expensive journal subscriptions or online libraries. When research is open, anyone can access it, study it, and use it, regardless of their budget or institutional affiliation.

Open access also opens the door to a type of collaboration that wouldn’t exist otherwise. Authors that publish their research in an open access journal—or deposit it in an open access repository after publication—invite others to use it and transform it in ways that they might not have even imagined. The work can become part of a larger project, expanding the body of public knowledge even more.”

If you have not read Martin Weller‘s book, The Battle for the Open, this might be a good time to download your OPEN COPY to understand the growing issues and obstacles we face in the world of openness and higher education. [Here’s a previous plug and my take on the book.]

Screen Shot 2015-10-27 at 3.48.09 PM

To honor #OAweek (belated) I present you an OPEN round-up of reads I’ve wrangled from this past month (and perhaps beyond) about open access (publishing, learning, resources, data, repositories, etc). I’m sure I’ve missed a few things, so please share other articles, resources, and updates about the open in the comments. Cheers!

Making Open Access work: Clustering analysis of academic discourse suggests OA is still grappling with controversy.

Stephen Pinfield discusses this article: “to provide an overview of one of the most important and controversial areas of scholarly communication: Open Access publishing and dissemination of research outputs. It identifies and discusses recent trends and future challenges for various stakeholders in delivering Open Access (OA) to the scholarly literature.”

Check out the Free online #webinar on The Impact of Open Education @Edtechie via @Ignatia Webs

This free webinar, which is being promoted by the ALT Open Education Special Interest Group, will explore findings of the OER Research Hub, which has been investigating the impact of open educational resources. btw, the OER Research Hub is a source of wonderful, innovative OER-work, really worth exploring!

Opening Up Open Access: Moving beyond business models and towards cooperative, scholar-organized, open networks. via @kfitz

This issue of credit usually gets discussed in the U.S. in terms of the things that “count” for promotion and tenure, but recent developments in Europe and the U.K. make the question of counting all the more literal, as the continued financial support of entire departments can hinge on a quantified assessment of those departments’ productivity, and the nature of “productivity” is all too narrowly defined.

SPARC Launches Open Access Evaluation Tool 

“the launch of the Open Access Spectrum (OAS) Evaluation Tool, which provides a concrete, quantifiable mechanism to independently analyze publications’ policies.

The OAS Evaluation Tool generates an “Openness” score that is straightforward, easy to understand, and free. The program provides critical information to authors, libraries, research funders, government agencies, and other interested parties. It can be used to help determine compliance with funder policies, institutional mandates, and researchers’ individual values. It also offers a unique opportunity for publishers to independently validate their journals’ degree of openness and compliance with funder and campus policies.”

HowOpenIsIt? Guide from PLOS

The “HowOpenIsIt?®” Open Access Spectrum (OAS) guide standardizes Open Access terminology in an easily understandable, comprehensive resource created by PLOS, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA). The guide defines core components of Open Access derived from the articulation of basic tenets in the 2002 Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI).

Academics have found a way to access insanely expensive research papers—for free 

When content is not accessible and open, the scholars revert to the hashtag #icanhazpdf: “many people are becoming increasingly frustrated with a business model—where work is produced by academics, edited by their peers, and often funded by the taxpayer—is hidden behind a paywall.

Exploring the publishing model of the Open Library of Humanities: A view from Latin America

 Francisco Osorio provides a brief overview of what sets this journal project apart from the rest and how the new funding model offers an economic, social and technological platform for the humanities and social sciences to transition to open access. At the heart of the matter is the forms of communication in humanities and social sciences as distinctive from the natural sciences.

Open access papers ‘more likely to be cited on Twitter’ 

Much to no one’s surprise: “open access journals and articles have a ‘big advantage’ when it comes to being shared on Twitter compared with those behind a paywall.”

What does Academia_edu’s success mean for Open Access? The data-driven world of search engines and social networking.

[Academia.edu is] “the ‘largest social-publishing network for scientists’, and ‘larger than all its competitors put together’ – clearly raises a number of questions for the open access movement. After all, compared to the general sluggishness (and at times overt resistance) with which the call to make research available on an open access basis has been met.”

The Future of figshare (for open data sharing)

figshare has strived to engender a strong sustainability model that would allow us to continue to improve our free offering. With our continued successes, alongside file sizes and research outputs increasing year on year, we’re going to be removing our premium accounts leaving only one tier of account

OECD report on students, computers and learning: making the connection [REPORT]

Are there computers in the classroom? Does it matter? Students, Computers and Learning: Making the Connection examines how students’ access to and use of information and communication technology (ICT) devices has evolved in recent years, and explores how education systems and schools are integrating ICT into students’ learning experiences.

Open Education Resources in Canada via the IRRODL

Canada’s important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally and provincially. There are growing examples of OER initiatives from several Canadian institutions offering free courses to Canadians and international learners.

Is it time for Canada to implement a unified open strategy for higher education? asks @clintlalonde

From Clint’s UBC/SFU Open Access week forum talk on this question [I concur with your response, Clint.]: “yes, having a unified national strategy on all things open is likely a good idea for the simple fact that it gets all the various strands of open – open access, open education, open source software, open pedagogy, open data –  in the same room. And any reason to bring people together to talk about their commonalities is a good thing.”

Openly Licensed Educational Resources: Providing Equitable Access to Education for All Learners via the US Federal Government

Open education advances key national priorities, including supporting shared economic prosperity, strengthening civil society, and investing in human development. Over the next year, the U.S. Government will continue efforts to expand and accelerate the use and availability of openly licensed educational materials worldwide. In addition, we will begin to model the transition to openly licensed educational materials at scale in U.S. K-12 schools.  We look forward to engaging with the national and global community to identify opportunities for open licensing to accelerate educational equity for all learners regardless of their financial situations or geographic locations.

Community Call from ALT: Open Education Technology and Practice

ALT is piloting a monthly ‘Community Call’ where we speak to ALT Members about their work. For our first call we speak with Lorna Campbell who is an advocate for open education, technology and practice.

Institute for Open Leadership Applications via Creative Commons – Due October 30, 2015

Earlier this year, Creative Commons and the Open Policy Network hosted the first Institute for Open Leadership (IOL). The IOL is a training and support program to empower new leaders interested in crafting and implementing an open licensing policy within their discipline. We had adiverse cohort of 14 fellows who came together for a week in January, 2015 in San Francisco. The fellows worked with mentors and each other to hone their open policy project ideas. Since then they’ve working within their institutions and fields to implement their open policy plan.

The impact of open textbook adoption on the learning outcomes of higher ed students

In some educational settings, the cost of textbooks approaches or even exceeds the cost of tuition. Given limited resources, it is important to better understand the impacts of free open educational resources (OER) on student outcomes. Utilizing digital resources such as OER can substantially reduce costs for students. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the adoption of no-cost open digital textbooks significantly predicted students’ completion of courses, class achievement, and enrollment intensity during and after semesters in which OER were used.

A Librarian’s Guide to OER in the Maker Space

Because of their capacity to stimulate creativity, OER are the perfect complement to the maker space movement. The maker movement shares a philosophy with the open source movement by fostering creativity, collaboration, and personalization in schools. The integration of OER into well-planned, well-designed maker spaces brings together physical and virtual interests and activities and expands learning opportunities.   Maker spaces are especially well suited for OER because they demonstrate inquiry-based learning and allow students some autonomy to direct their learning.

The Real Threat of OER via David Wiley (@opencontent)

Publishers continue to believe that “free” is the main threat posed to their business models by OER. Perhaps that is because pricing is a threat they understand and know how to counteract. However, the core idea of openness – to generously grant others the broad range of permissions that enables them to innovate in any manner they can imagine – that is the real threat OER pose to commercial publishers. While the prices for commercial materials may eventually approach affordability, publishers are structurally unable to grant faculty the broad set of copyright permissions necessary to truly empower them. Their business models forbid it.

 The arXiv cannot replace traditional publishing without addressing the standards of research assessment [in open repositories]. via @JanvadeHe

So why has the arXiv become so important for researchers in these particular fields? Why is it that it is now more or less standard that any active researcher in these areas will deposit a close to final version of their publications in the archive? Part of it can be explained by the increasing prominence of Open Access and related developments in academic publishing. But that can only explain a small part of the success of the arXiv. The main reason of its success, in my opinion, is a specific feature of these research areas: the very long lead time between submission and publication in a journal of papers in those fields, and hence the historic prominence of “preprints” and “reports.”

The benefits of Open Access Repositories – Q & A with Professor Sonia Livingstone shares her thoughts on the LSE’s institutional repository, LSE Research Online (LSERO)

oa-week-sonia-pablo

Honest and reliable Open Access Journals in Open and Distance Education from Rob Farrow at the @OER_Hub

Advertisements
Academia, networkedscholar, Open Education, OpenAccess

Being #Open Comes with a Number of Assumptions, Challenges and Tensions #scholar14

Being an open educator is critical. From my personal experience, I have engaged and interacted with research, teaching, and service scholarship based on the examples I have seen around me.  A large number of collaborative research and learning opportunities could not have been possible without using open and social platforms. To be a truly effective educator and researcher, I believe it is critical to share our research-to-practice work. It is through transparency and openness, scholars are able to contribute to their discipline, connect to other related fields, and, most importantly, contribute to public knowledge.

open
Photo c/o Flickr member OpenSource.com 

As I think about digital scholarship and “openness” as an early career researcher, there are a number of questions unanswered and need to be discussed further as academia is challenged by the digital (Pasquini, Wakefield, & Roman, 2014, p. 13) :

  • What type of research exchange will scholars participate in during the 21st century?
  • Is scholarship just about publication and citation index?
  • Should research require a social aspect to connect and exchange discourse and/or debate?
  • What social media and altmetrics are best suited for interaction and engagement within each discipline?
  • How do individual research impact factors influence academia career development?
  • What suggestions do seasoned researchers have for the digital scholar generation?

Challenges and tensions should be considered when openly giving back to the resource pool of learning and research. A number of researchers have expressed their concern for being open and sharing methods, research findings, and other aspects of the “process” of learning and research. To balance these concerns, also comes the tensions of network influence, identity, and impact that continue to pour over from #scholar14 Week 1 conversations:

“Uncovering differences in network structure according to discipline and position points to a relationship with academic career trajectory and identity. This finding contradicts the perception that the online environment acts as a democratising space, suggesting instead a preservation of ‘off-line’ hierarchy” (Jordan, 2014).

Within this past week, I was fortunate to hear how a few members of my personal learning network grapple and manage these dueling tensions in academia – here are a few notes, tweets, and ideas gathered from these talks:

  1. Martin Weller‘s #UTAlink talk  Battle for the Open
  2. Royce Kimmons (@roycekimmonsAssumptions, Challenges & Tensions #scholar14 Chat
  3. Dave Cormier‘s #aln14 Keynote on Rhizomatic Learning – The Community is the Curriculum

“Tearing down the traditional walls” is becoming more common in online, social academic communities. This breaking down of the traditional norms in academia, is designed to remove barriers placed between the faculty member and their learners. To be part of this sharing community, you need to really embody core values of openness, equity, access, and sharing. The challenge often emerges when your own philosophy of being “open” is not inline with your post-secondary education institution. I strongly believe that open needs to be a key  attribute for PSE institutions to take the lead on, specifically in terms of policy or manifesto that includes (e.g. Open Access @ UNT), OER resources, open scholarship, open data resources (e.g. UNT Data Spot),  and more.

How does the culture of your academic community, discipline, or institution influence you? Are there considerations and tensions challenging you “to be or not be” in these open spaces? Please share. My ears and eyes are open. Always.

References:

Jordan, K. (2014). Academics and their online networks: Exploring the role of academic social networking sites. First Monday, 19 (11 – 3). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4937/4159 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i11.

Pasquini, L. A., Wakefield, J. S. , & Roman, T. (2014). Impact factor: Early career research & digital scholarship. TechTrends, 58(6), 12-13. DOI 10.1007/s11528-014-0797-7

LPQ, LPQuarterly

Hot Off the Digital Press: @LPQuarterly 2(3)

With the start of the new academic year, we are pleased to be distributing the new issue of the Learning and Performance Quarterly (LPQ) journal – Volume 2, Issue 3. On behalf of the editorial team, I hope this edition will inform scholars, practitioners and leaders in the learning and performance field.

LPQ_Facebook_Banner

The Learning and Performance Quarterly (ISSN 2166-3564) is a peer-reviewed, open access journal from the Center for Knowledge Solutions at the University of North Texas. The journal takes a broad look at current developments and research that involves innovative learning, training, human resource development, and performance management across academic and professional disciplines.

Learning and Performance Quarterly
Vol 2, No 3 (2014), Table of Contents

Editorial
——–
A New Academic Year, New Learning and Performance Understandings (1)
Laura A. Pasquini,      Tekeshia Zimmerman,     Jeff M. Allen

Invited Articles
——–
Integrated Approach To Building Intercultural Competence (2-15)
Katherine H. Rosenbusch

Research Articles
——–
The Influence of Wiki on Team Effectiveness in a Graduate Research Class (16-34)
Lin Xu, Jessie Cutler,  Jie Xiao,       Holly M. Hutchins

Erikson’s Development Crises: Applying Developmental Theory to Adult Learning (35-48)
Jose Victor Lineros,    Mark E. Fincher

Book Review
——–
Book Review: The Innovator’s DNA (49-50)
Robin James Mayes
______________________________________________
Do you have an article you want to submit?  Our call for proposals is OPEN! Submit your manuscripts to the journal TODAY!

You can review the previous article submissions in the LPQ Archives. We are seeking manuscript submissions for the following categories:

  • Research Articles – Qualitative/Quantitative
  • Concept/Theory Papers
  • Literature Reviews
  • Case Studies
  • Book or Media Reviews
  • Invited Articles
  • Editorials

If you have any questions about potential article submissions, or you are interested in contributing to the Learning and Performance Quarterly editorial team (peer-reviewing, copy editing, layout, etc.) please reach out to myself or the other LPQ Editors.

Thanks for reading,

Dr. Laura A. Pasquini, Editor (@laurapasquini)
Tekeisha D. Zimmerman, Assistant Editor (@TekeishaZ)
Dr. Jeff M. Allen, Managing Editor (@drjeffallen)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#AcWri, Learning Technologies, LPQuarterly, OpenAccess

The @LPQuarterly – Year Two, An Editor’s View, and Volume Two

It is my second year editing and working with the Learning and Performance (a.k.a. @LPQuarterly) here at the University of North Texas.

The Learning and Performance Quarterly (ISSN 2166-3564) is a peer-reviewed, open access journal from the Center for Knowledge Solutions at the University of North Texas. The journal takes a broad look at current developments and research that involves innovative learning, training, human resource development, and performance management across academic and professional disciplines.

Creating an open access, academic writing space from scratch is a bit like a “start up” – it takes a lot of time, investment, tears, creativity, stress, and collaboration (not in any particular order). In being an open educator and seeing academic channels open for scholarly publications, It was only fitting that our agraphia writing/research group from the Department of Learning Technologies consider developing an interdisciplinary, online space for scholars, practioners, and researchers to publish in our field. In coming from the University of Toronto, I knew that the Faculty of Information Quarterly (FIQ) was a student-led, peer review project — so I figured that our talented group could do the same thing.

lpq_logo_enhanced

After reading Karina Quinn’s (a.k.a. @riotk ) blog post, “How to start an Open Access journal,” I thought I could have helped to co-author that post. 🙂 I shared some similar stories and a deep respect for her experiences in open access publishing. So, with that, I thought I would share a few of my lessons learned (from Fall 2011) about the academic publishing process:

  • It takes time to build a journal. TIME!
  • You will have to always CHECK your journal email for communication updates from authors, reviewers, editors and then some. This SHOULD be separate from your personal and work e-mail to keep your life organized, and if your editorial board needs access to the journal email.
  • You can NEVER have enough quality peer reviewers on your roster. Search them out. Invite them. Mentor/support them. Grade and evaluate them with your editorial team.
  • Surround yourself with many talents on your editorial team – think of copyediting, layout, recruitment, and more!
  • Find great scholars and researchers to publish – help to build your street cred and raise the bar for your journal content.
  • Communicate & Market – share what you are doing with different professional associations, student groups, conferences, research listservs, social media outlets, and then some. I started bringing flyers and cards for the journal to places I would go to invite potential authors/researchers, copy editors and most of all peer reviewers.
  • Connect to your friendly neighborhood librarian for advice, indexing, database set up, and then some. They have some GREAT experiences & ideas.
  • Sharpen your editing TOOLS – read books, review websites, watch tutorials, learn about publishing guidelines, school yourself in APA 6th,  talk to other editors, peer review in for other academic journals, and more!
  • Offer developmental writing workshops and opportunities for graduate students and junior scholars, e.g. HOW TO: Effectively Review, Submit & Publish Your Academic Manuscript. . This is a great space for learning, and provides them with opportunities to inquire about academic writing. Also, find experienced scholars and faculty who can share their publication experiences – the good, the rejected, and then some!
  • You will learn new tech skills: read “how to” for the Open Journal System (OJS), linking to EBSCOhost databases, and meta data fun times!
  • Consider how your virtual team will function, meet, and connect on a regular basis to publish issues.
  • Identify a workflow and easy to use spaces for archiving meeting notes, recruitment/marketing material, and communication for your editorial team.
  • Understand your institutional policies for publishing if you are a university. Our university is Open Access, and I’m proud to say that our Provost just signed the latest SPARC agreement to for Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR) bill. What will it mean for an open access publication at YOUR campus?
  • Build in transition and mentoring into your role as an editor. Look for peer reviewers who might be great copy-editors, and consider your change in role as an editor.  I am currently working with our Assistant Editor, Tekeisha Zimmerman, this year who will take on the main editor role for 2014.
  • Never doubt the power of your network. Talk up what you’re doing in person at conferences, when you meet researchers, and get SOCIAL online. We share our call for papers and information about writing on Twitter (@LPQuarterly), our LPQ Facebook Page, and on LinkedIn Groups that are relevant to LPQ.

PUblishing

With the support of the LPQ editorial team, I have been able to work with a number of brilliant contributing authors, peer reviewers, and readers within the fields of education (K-12 and higher ed), learning technology, human resource development, human computer interaction, knowledge management, training and development assessment, and performance management systems. We are currently seeking manuscript submissions for the following categories:

  • Research Articles – Qualitative/Quantitative
  • Concept/Theory Papers
  • Case Studies
  • Book or Media Reviews
  • Invited Articles

If you are interested in submitting an article, the 2013 call for papers is OPEN. Please submit your manuscripts ONLINE today!

For more information or questions, please contact the Learning and Performance Quarterly Editors:
Laura A. Pasquini, Editor
Tekeisha Zimmerman, Assistant Editor
Dr. Jeff M. Allen, Managing Editor
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

On behalf of the editorial LP Quarterly team, we invite you to read the current issue, or visit the archives for your research and learning.

Here is the most recent issue,Learning and Performance Quarterly, Vol 2, No 1 (2013) that is…

HOT-OFF-THE-PRESSES

Table of Contents
http://www.sageperformance.com/ojs/index.php/LPQ/issue/view/7

Editorial
——–
Transforming Teaching, Knowledge Management & Performance Measurement
Systems
Laura A. Pasquini,      Tekeisha Zimmerman,     Jeff M. Allen

Invited Articles
——–
Traditional Teaching or Innovative Teaching via Technology?
Victor C.X. Wang,       Patricia Cranton

Concept/Theory Paper
——–
A Conceptual Model for Community of Practice and Its Implications for Human
Resource Development Practice
Hee Sung Lee,   Jeong Rok Oh

Performance Measurement Systems and Culture:  An Integrative Literature
Review
Shelby Danks

Book Review
——–
A Year Up: How a Pioneering Program Teaches Young Adults Real Skills for
Real Jobs with Real Success
Michael F. Koslosk

#AcWri, OpenAccess

SPARC Addendum & Author Rights for Publishing #OpenAccess

As part of the international open access week last fall, I attended the #SPARC Addendums and Author Rights Workshop facilitated by Kris Helge from the UNT Libraries. As an author and editor for a journal, this session reminded me about the critical stakeholders and expectations for the scholarly publishing process and the need to consider my own author agreements before signing away my work. I am fortunate enough to work and study at an institution who supports Open Access,and #OpenAccess publications.

I am also excited that other academic journals (e.g. JALN) are joining the #OA movement; however there are a number of peer-reviewed, academic publications who hold traditional publisher agreements and copyright limitations close to their heart. If you are an academic, scholarly author, or early career researcher and you have NOT heard about SPARC … then this blog post is for you!

mainheader

After a brief review of copyrights and “traditional publishing agreements,” the workshop reminded me about of the importance of reading author agreements CAREFULLY and THOROUGHLY. A number of authors and early career researchers are just excited to get the chance to publish, that they rarely considering they are agreeing to transfer ALL OF THEIR COPYRIGHTS TO THE PUBLISHER. As researchers, we need to value our intellectual property and have a conversation with the publisher and inquire if any of the publishing agreement is negotiable.

Cue the SPARC Addendum

SPARC. or the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, advocates for collaboration among authors, publishers, and libraries to correct imbalances found in the academic publishing system.

For a more balanced approach for author and publisher agreements you might want to consider the SPARC Addendum. This is a FREE, legal document that modifies the publisher’s agreement and allows authors to keep specific copyrights related to intellectual property (e.g. articles).  The author is able to retain their desired publishing rights with limited restrictions, and the publisher retains non-exclusive rights to publish and distribute your work. Overall, it allows authors to consider the access of their research, placement of writing into an electronic repository, and get the proper attribution when your work is utilized.

Want to know more about SPARC and #OpenAccess publishing resources? Check them out :

 

Reference:

Helge, K. (2012, October 24). SPARC Addendums and Author Rights Workshop. 2012 International Open Access Week @ UNT.

Higher Education, Open Education

Open Access For All #oa12unt

Yesterday, I attended the 3rd Annual Open Access Symposium at UNT (#oa12unt). It was a full day of talking about open data, sharing research and collaborative efforts and examples in #highered. The open access process is not as simple as you think. It was interesting to hear from researchers, academics, librarians, industry partners, and data managers about what it means to be “open” and accessible for others. Here are a few open notes I took and a Storify I curated from the day.

I think the concluding remarks (and other notes) made by Brian Schottlaender (@ucsdBECS) helped to summarize the key points that were  both said and were not said during the day, including the following topics:

  • Data Preservation
  • Data Aggregation
  • Attribution
  • Citation
  • Publication
  • Data Ecology
  • Peer Review
  • Discovery & Delivery
  • Data Governance
  • Exhortations to Librarians

These final thoughts left me questioning about how higher education will engage in open access and consider what academic tenure/promotion will look like in the future. The open movement is present in my learning network, among the Social and Open Educators like @courosa and academic contributors who want to End Knowledge Cartels in publication such as @academicdave, There are many open and transparent academics/educators contributing to the open movement – but there needs to be more. And more importantly, academic institutions need to recognize and accept open scholarship.

I know the #oa12unt symposium lit the fire for me to finish the layout and publish the first issue of the Learning and Performance Quarterly. This student-lead, open access  journal is an open access publication that I am proud to edit and coordinate with a phenomenal group of reviewers and a great editorial team. The inaugural issue was JUST published online today, and is available for your reading and sharing pleasure HERE.

What have you done openly lately in #highered? Please share.